Saturday, February 17, 2018

Predicting the Fate of Oil Spills in Ice

Predicting the Fate of Oil Spills in Ice

Predicting the Fate of Oil Spills in Ice

sea
Arctic Environmental Test Basin in Hamburg after oil and ice research. (Photo: Giuliani von Giese)

By Gemini News 2018-02-16 21:35:00

[By Nancy Bazilchuk]

Global warming and political decisions are opening the Arctic and its frosty seas to increased development. But what will happen if that expansion results in oil spills in the frozen ocean?

Sea ice is more complicated than you might think. It's not solid. It's much more like a sponge, shot through with tiny channels and pores that can contain salt, briny sea water, or air bubbles.

That structure matters in the event of an oil spill. Oil is lighter than seawater so if it is spilled, it can migrate upward, into the tiny channels in the ice, which can trap it and complicate clean up. But the truth is that Arctic sea ice is so complex that it is difficult to know exactly how oil and ice will interact.

Studying it is also difficult because traditional sampling and tests may crush or distort the very structure you're trying to understand, says Sönke Maus, a postdoc at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and a member of an international research group called MOSIDEO (Microscale interaction of oil with sea ice for detection and environmental risk management in sustainable operations).

"We are looking at channels that are one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter," Maus said. "And if we want to know what is happening in the ice, we need a three dimensional image."

Difficult to evaluate an under-ice oil spill

Here's how Maus describes the problem: if crude oil is spilled in the ocean, it normally floats. But if the oil is released or spilled under a lid of sea ice, it will be trapped under the ice.

"Depending on the microstructure of the sea ice, the oil may be trapped or it may keep moving up towards the surface," he said. "So if we want to evaluate the environmental consequences of an under-ice oil spill, we really want to know when and if the oil will come to the surface, how far the ice will drift before the oil surfaces, and how much of the oil will be trapped in the ice when the ice finally melts."

If that doesn't sound difficult enough, there are even more challenging questions that have to be answered to figure out how to deal with an oil spill, Maus says.

One week to act

The channels and pores in the sea ice are different depending upon where they are located in the ice. At its surface, where the ice is in contact with cold air temperatures, sea ice has smaller and less connected pores.

Maus says that oil will normally only enter larger pores and also needs to push the seawater out of the pores. During wintertime the ice is often too cold at the surface to allow for this, and the oil will be trapped. But during spring, or when the ice warms in warm weather, oil may migrate to the surface.

Once the oil surfaces, "you have to act very fast," Maus says. "The only realistic approach to remove this oil from the surface of a closed ice cover is to burn it. However, most of the oil can only be burned during a window of opportunity of typically one week." After a week, the oil is said to be "weathered". It has lost  certain components and mixed with water and can no longer be removed by burning it. "This oil then threatens the arctic ecosystem," Maus says.

Medical imagery on ice

Maus and his colleagues, including Martina Lan Salomon, a MOSIDEO PhD candidate, are perfecting the use of x-ray microtomography to study the ice, with the ultimate goal of addressing all these unknowns so they can better predict what will happen to oil spills in the Arctic.

The main goal of MOSIDEO, which includes researchers from NORUT, the Northern Research Institute, NORUT Narvik, NTNU and the University of Alaska, is to learn more about the interactions between oil and sea ice. The researchers hope their work will improve risk assessment and contingency planning for oil spills. It is funded through the end of 2018 by the Research Council of Norway. Salomon's PhD is being sponsored by a German software company called Math2Market, which makes the software the scientists are using to analyse their icy images.

The approach the researchers are using relies on a higher resolution version of the technology that allows your doctor to create a CT scan image. Essentially, the researchers create a series of consecutive two-dimensional images of a sea ice sample while it is rotating. This produces thousands of 2-D transmission images that can be used to reconstruct the internal structure of the sea ice. A reconstruction made using a powerful mathematical algorithm, transforms these images into a range of grey values that reflect different material densities for ice, brine, salt crystals and air. ). In practice the 3-d image, typically 2000 x 2000 x 2000 "voxels," or the 3-D equivalent of a pixel, is often stored as a stack of 2-d slices.

"Fifteen years ago you would need a super computer to do this," Maus said. "But now we can analyse a 30 gigabyte image using a good worstation, a good graphics card and good software." The researchers also have access to a CT scanner at the university via RECX, the Norwegian Centre for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging.

From Hamburg to Svalbard

But imagery and software are just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak. To study sea ice, you have to have sea ice, and to study oil spills in sea ice, you have to create some oil spills.

Maus and Salomon are tackling this problem in two ways. The first is to run their oil spill experiments in an ice basin in Hamburg, Germany, called the HSVA, or the Hamburg Ship Model Basin.

Here, they can control conditions as they develop their study approach. They freeze a series of long cardboard tubes in the ice, like the same kind you might use to store a map or poster. They can then introduce oil into the bottom of all of the tubes. Each day, they take a sample from a new tube see how the oil moves from day to day.

Experimental sea ice is good, of course, but even better is to see what happens out in the real world. To do this, the researchers have traveled to the Norwegian island archipelago of Svalbard, where they drive snowmobiles from the main town of Longyearbyen to a little outpost called Svea, about two hours away.

More frozen tubes, and permission to spill oil

During the winter and spring of 2016, Salomon and Maus froze 15 cardboard tubes in the sea ice outside of Svea, and got permission from the Svalbard authorities to create their own mini (and carefully controlled) oil spill, by introducing oil and diesel into the tubes. Once a week, they returned to Svea to sample the tubes, which allowed them to see how the oil moved upwards, and how the microstructure of the ice changed over time.

Salomon can take the samples back to the laboratory at UNIS, the University Centre in Svalbard, and centrifuge the oil free samples to remove all the sea water. She can then create x-ray microtomography images of the sea ice to compare it to microstructures of sea ice with introduced oil.

The ice has to be kept at the correct temperature to preserve the structures inside it — which itself is another challenge if the researchers have to transport the ice to mainland Norway, or to Germany, where they had access to a special facility that was much faster and could product better image quality. So far, the use of special frozen blocks — the "blue ice" that people may use in their picnic basket to keep perishable food cold — works well. In Svalbard, where the air temperature is actually much colder than the sea ice, the researchers have the opposite problem.

"We don't want the ice to be too cool," Maus said. "So we have special insulated boxes that we can heat to the right temperature while we drive back from Svea to Longyearbyen."

Five to seven per cent of the world's oceans

For the moment, the two researchers are still perfecting their imaging techniques and building computer models that will help them describe the structure of sea ice down to its smallest pores. The next step is to use this information to help predict how the oil will move in the ice, Maus said. "In case of a serious oil spill in the Arctic, the results of our project will be important to minimize the harm to the environment," Maus said.

But the structure of sea ice has importance far beyond oil spills, as scientists strive to understand climate change, Arctic ecosystems and develop a more substantial information base for Arctic engineering, he said. "It's an important step in understanding porous sea ice which covers, on average, 5-7 per cent of the world oceans, and plays a key role in determining the Earth's climate and environment in cold regions," he said.

This article appears courtesy of Gemini News / SINTEF, and it may be found in its original form here

The opinions expressed herein are the author's and not necessarily those of The Maritime Executive.



~A.

Saturday, February 03, 2018

Bit Raped | Bit Raped – Bit Raped Information

Watch out!

http://bitraped.com/

It's a set -up....

Health Ranger lab analysis exposes 700+ chemicals in Tide laundry pods… many are extremely TOXIC to human health and aquatic life – NaturalNews.com

Health Ranger lab analysis exposes 700+ chemicals in Tide laundry pods… many are extremely TOXIC to human health and aquatic life – NaturalNews.com

Health Ranger lab analysis exposes 700+ chemicals in Tide laundry pods… many are extremely TOXIC to human health and aquatic life

Image: Health Ranger lab analysis exposes 700+ chemicals in Tide laundry pods… many are extremely TOXIC to human health and aquatic life

(Natural News) Over the last few months, I've promised that we would be testing off-the-shelf products in our lab, revealing their chemical constituents to the public. Today, in conjunction with the non-profit Consumer Wellness Center (which conducted the research) and Science.news (which exclusively published the first findings), we are releasing these scientific results to the public.

"Tide laundry pods are being eaten by ignorant youth as part of the so-called 'Tide pod challenge' that has gone viral across social media," explains the Consumer Wellness Center. "This phenomenon is an extension of the 'fake food' programming of children who have been taught to believe that food consists of brightly-colored chemical ingredients delivered in plastic containers."

Full details of the analysis are published at Science.news: EXCLUSIVE: Tide laundry pods found to contain over 700 chemicals; independent lab test results released to the public.

It's time the public learned the truth about the chemical cocktail in Tide laundry pods

The maker of Tide, Proctor & Gamble, lists just 14 ingredients on its Tide ingredients page. These ingredients are made "friendly sounding" with verbiage such as, "Found in lemons and citrus fruits, it's mild and helps to remove bad smells from clothes. Known as a chelating agent, which is used to soften water." In reality, many of the chemical names found in Tide products are far more "scary" sounding, such as 1-hexadecylazepan-2-one (C22 H43 N O).

The Consumer Wellness Center is now releasing the complete list of 700+ chemical formulas found in Tide laundry pods. Download that document (PDF) at this link:

http://www.consumerwellness.org/PDF/Tide-Laundry-Pods-Chemical-Formulas.pdf

Watch the full video here, which explains how Tide was tested and what results were found (article continues below):

Some of the chemicals found in Tide laundry pods include:

1-hexadecylazepan-2-one (C22 H43 N O)
See details at Pubchem.

Trimethyl orthopropionate (C6 H14 O3)
See details at Pubchem.

Chimyl alcohol (C19 H40 O3)
See details at Pubchem.

Read more at Science.news or the Consumer Wellness Center.



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Thursday, February 01, 2018

A 350-Word Announcement on a Huge Publicly Available Database of Once-Secret Documents about Major Industrial Poisons (3 minute read)

A 350-Word Announcement on a Huge Publicly Available Database of Once-Secret Documents about Major Industrial Poisons (3 minute read)

A 350-Word Announcement on a Huge Publicly Available Database of Once-Secret Documents about Major Industrial Poisons (3 minute read)

TOxicDocsLogo-5

E-mail: contact@toxicdocs.org
Web: www.toxicdocs.org
Facebook www.facebook.com/ToxicDocs
Twitter: www.twitter.com/ToxicDocs

Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health
City University of New York, Graduate Center

1/28/2018

Q: What is ToxicDocs.org?
A: It's a dataset consisting of 20 million+ pages of once-secret material on deadly poisons: asbestos, benzene, PCBs, polyvinyl chloride, silica, and lead. Our website helps you navigate it easily.

Q: I'm a visual learner. Is there a way I can get a sense of your site without reading this?
A: Yes, check out our video. (You don't need to be on Facebook.)

Q: 20 million pages. That's it?
A: No. More will be added in the coming months and years.

Q: Could this project have been done 10 years ago?
A: Absolutely not. We've leveraged huge developments in high-throughput and parallel/cloud computing to make this stuff available and full-text searchable. It's taken three years to figure it out. We'll be writing more about the "Big Data" technology behind the site throughout the year on our blog, but here's a good start.

Q: What exactly is in this material?
A: These records include secret meeting minutes of trade associations; memos between executives and scientists about safety; public relations strategies; published and unpublished scientific studies, and a lot more.

Q: Are there other substances besides these six?
A: Yes. Many industrial firms had their hands in so many aspects of production that you are bound to find material on your substance of interest.

Q: Do you plan to have material beyond these initial areas?
A: Definitely. Stay tuned.

Q: Is this free?
A: Yes.

Q: Will you ever charge "subscription fees" to, say, community health advocates?
A: Absolutely not. Our slogan is "Free and Open to All."

Q: Are these 'leaked' documents?
A: No. We aren't Wikileaks. We do not accepted leaked material.

Q: Who likes your site?
A: Legendary consumer advocate Erin Brockovich and Senator Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island, for starters!

Q: Is there a space in ToxicDocs or not?
A: Whatever you feel like.



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Saturday, January 27, 2018

Beginner’s Setup for Growing Cannabis Indoors - Easy Indoor Grow Setup

ta-da!

Beginner's Setup for Growing Cannabis Indoors

In just 12 weeks you can have your first harvest. In this beginner's guide you'll learn everything you need to know to successfully create your first easy indoor grow setup for growing cannabis.

Let's see what equipment you'll need to get started:

Your First Indoor Grow Setup for Growing Cannabis

Space for Growing

Instead of doing all the work to convert your basement into a greenhouse, you can start small with just a grow tent in your closet. There are several sizes to fit your needs. The ones we choose for our reviews are all reflective on the inside to make the most of the light source you use. They are also thick enough to keep light out so your plants have their needed rest time.

Starting from Scratch with Seeds

A crucial part of your setup for growing cannabis: You'll need to get a few seeds. They cost around $10 or more per seed if you buy online from legal sellers (link takes you to our seed buying guide). Once you have those beautiful little babies on hand, you'll need a place to germinate them.

Be sure you've received seeds that have a tiger-stripe pattern. Black seeds are dead and worthless.

Peat Pellets for Germination

Using peat pellets is an easy way to get seeds to germinate. Soak the pellets in water to let them expand. Then insert the seeds so they are about ½" deep inside the pellet.

Keep the pellets moist, but don't water right on top of them so they don't wash out of the pellet.

It takes 3 to 7 days for the seeds to sprout.

Light to Grow and a Timer to Control the Light

Once your seeds have sprouted, leave them growing inside the pellet but make sure they have light. From then until they are about 3-1/2 weeks old, they will need 18 hours a day of light and 6 hours of darkness. The easiest way to control this is to put your light on a timer.

After they reach about 3- 3½ weeks of age, you can give them 12 hours of light a day and 12 hours of darkness. That will start the flowering stage.

You can read all about energy-efficient LED grow lights in our article. LEDs consume less electricity and produce less heat. That saves you money on utility bills because you use less electricity for light and air circulation. In turn, you're less likely to get spotted as a grower if you happen to live where it's not legal to have cannabis plants.

As for keeping track of time, we recommend a high-quality programmable timer. However, the cheap ones that people use while they're on vacation don't keep time accurately. You want one that can handle the higher amount of current you'll be drawing if you use a powerful light.

For example, this popular Enover timer is programmable up to 7 days and can handle up to 15A of current. The main downfall is that it isn't UL or CSA-listed as having passed minimum safety requirements. That doesn't mean it's not safe; it just means the company hasn't bothered to get that certification yet.

One that is UL-listed and has similar features is the iPower 7-Day Dual-Outlet Digital Timer. It has an LCD display, it can remember 8 separate schedules each day for up to a week, and has two outlets with surge protection. The two outlets will be very handy.

Air Circulation

Running grow lights means creating heat. While cannabis likes heat up to a point, too much of it and they will burn just like you might on a hot, sunny day. It's important to circulate air with fans or some other method.

It's also important to control odor later on as the plants mature.

One solution is to use an all-in-one grow tent that comes ready with lights, ducting, and fans—an instant indoor grow setup. Popular manufacturer Gorilla Grow Tents sell a complete 4′ by 4′ by 6'11" grow tent package (height can be extended 12″). It includes a top 750w LED grow light from Kind LED just right for the tent size (we've previously reviewed the very similar Kind K5 1000w), and a fan that moves air in through the tent and out the charcoal-filtered ducts. They also include a hygro-thermometer so it's easy to monitor conditions inside.

A great option for a stand-alone fan is the Holmes Dual-Blade Twin Window Fan. It's quiet, has two speed settings, and the air flow can be reversed for exhaust. Another bonus is that the motor is water-resistant.

Pots for Planting

After your seedlings start pushing their roots out of the sides of the pellet, you need to pot them. Leave the plant inside the pellet and put it deep into fresh soil in a pot. You can bury it up to halfway up the stem.

So, pots for your pot…sorry, just had to write that. Maybe had too much today already.

Fabric pots are the newest, and possibly the best way to grow. They let a plant's roots breathe and drain so they are less likely to get root rot or root-bound. Smart Pots sells several sizes. We recommend 5-gallon fabric containers as a good size. You can choose smaller or larger, depending on your needs. Experts recommend using at least 3-gallon pots if you have over 25-watts of light per square foot.

Soil and Nutrients

Remember, you're growing for human consumption, so don't use junk to grow your cannabis. Organic soil gives the best flavor.

Black Gold sells a 16-quart bag (that's 4 gallons) of OMRI-certified organic potting soil that has good drainage and air space from pumice and perlite. OMRI-certified means it's the real deal. It has earthworm castings (yes, worm poop) and other organic fertilizers in it. This means you won't need to add more nutrients to the soil until the 3rd or 4th week.

When the time comes, you'll need good fertilizer. The same rule applies—don't use chemicals. You're growing weed, not meth. Check out our reviews of the best nutrients for growing.

Watering

If you can use filtered water instead of city water from a faucet, do it. It will have less chemicals. Pop a filter on your faucet for an easy way to have pure water.

I like the PUR filters better than Culligan or other brands. They have a good reputation, they warn you when it's time to change filters, and they fit most faucets. Each filter lasts for about 100 gallons.

Young plants only need water about once a week. Adult plants will need water about once a day. Some people with larger farms have a drip irrigation system. That's pretty handy. But probably you can get by with a smaller setup for now.

Get yourself a watering can with a long spout. It makes watering simple. Make sure it fits under the faucet. Also look out for one that makes it easy to mix in liquid fertilizer, like this one from Aquavor. It has a built-in fertilizer dispenser.

There are a few ways to know if you need to water, or need to wait.

  • Look at the leaves. Are they hanging down? Give water.
  • Does the soil feel warm? Give water.
  • Does the soil feel cool? Wait to water.

Or take the guesswork out of the equation and use a hygrometer to see if there is enough water in the soil.

Measuring Temperature and Humidity (Soil Moisture)

The Extech 445715 hygro-thermometer is a serious tool for serious growers. It measures humidity and temperature accurately and comes with a probe.

There is also a less expensive option that only measures moisture in the soil. It's a sensor made by Etekcity. You insert the metal rod into the soil and the color-coded display shows you how wet the soil is.

Odor Control

After your cannabis plants have been flowering for a couple of months, they will have a strong odor. This is when your odor control system is essential.

Along with your air circulation system, you need charcoal filters. One solution to add to your ductwork is iPower's inline Air Carbon Filter. It lasts about a year if you reverse the flanges after 6 months. This is probably the lowest-maintenance solution.

Harvest Time

It's been about 12 weeks. How will you know when it's time to harvest?

By now, you've eliminated male plants, so look closely at the females. Are their white hairs turning brown?

If you had a digital microscope like this one from Plugable, you could look at the trichomes, or sticky things on the buds, to see if they are brown, too.

Be careful when you cut the plants. Use good, comfortable garden shears like these from Black & Decker so you can trim the leaves and buds neatly.

Curing the Buds

Yes, you could smoke them now. But in a couple of months, they will be more powerful. Cure your buds for the best results.

The all-time favorite way of curing cannabis buds is to place them in glass jars. We like wide mouth Ball jars like these, or even the quart-size jars are nice.

Growing Guide

Got your new indoor grow setup in place? Get all the details on growing great weed here with our growing guide. It'll take you from seed to harvest and on through curing and storing your first great buds.

Looking to take your growing up a notch? Or just like to know pretty much everything there is to know before you get started? Ryan Riley's 839-page Growing Elite Marijuana: The Complete Guide is the professional grower's bible.

It might look expensive, but it should more than pay for itself with bigger, better harvests, time saved and fewer costly mistakes.

Legal Disclaimer

Although some states have legalized the use of marijuana, most have not. Each state has their own laws about growing and possessing cannabis. Check what the rules are in your area with our interactive map, or by visiting the website of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws at http://norml.org/.

Shop Related Products


Adrienne L den Tex



Wednesday, January 24, 2018

9 Times You'll Regret Being Cheap When You Travel - SmarterTravel

9 Times You'll Regret Being Cheap When You Travel - SmarterTravel

9 Times You'll Regret Being Cheap When You Travel

Prasit Rodphan/Shutterstock

Some parts of travel are worth the splurge. Although saving a little cash feels good when you first book that rock-bottom-price plane ticket, that pre-dawn moment when your alarm rings for that 6:00 a.m. flight might make you regret being cheap.

You May Regret Being Cheap While Traveling

A cheap flight, inconveniently located hotel, or minuscule rental car may save you money, but they'll likely still cost you plenty of regret and inconvenience. Want to avoid feeling the regret of being cheap when you travel? Then avoid these mistakes:

Waiting for the Shuttle to an Off-Airport Rental Car

Klemen K. Misic/Shutterstock

You just survived a long flight and are ready to get to your final destination. Too bad you booked with a shady rental car company that's located in an industrial area far from the airport. Now, instead of hopping in a car and driving off, you're trekking to some forgotten corner of a far-off terminal and waiting for a rental car shuttle bus that may or may not come.

Getting up Before Dawn for an Early Flight

palidachan/Shutterstock
Hovering over the "book" button, you think to yourself, "I'm saving $50! I'm so frugal! I get up early for work every day, a 6:00 a.m. flight won't be that bad!" Until the night before your flight when you're calculating just how early you have to wake up to be at the airport in time … and realizing that you're going to be spending the first day of your vacation sleep-deprived. Plus, if you have to be up before public transit is running, you may end up spending what you saved on the flight to take a taxi to the airport.

Lying Awake at Night Listening to Your Hostel Roommates Snore

Elnur/Shutterstock

How bad can a 20-bed room in a hostel be? After all, you'll only be there to sleep, so why bother spending more for a private room? If one of those 20 beds is booked by a loud snorer, a sleep-talker, or someone waking up early for a flight, pretty bad—and will defeat you being in there to sleep, since you won't get any.

Settling Into the Middle Seat in the Back of the Plane

Julian Schlaen/Shutterstock

After spending too many hundreds of dollars on a bare-bones economy ticket, it can be hard to persuade yourself to give another penny to an airline. You'll stuff everything into a small carry-on and be willing to board last … but when you settle into the non-reclining middle seat next to the bathroom, you will be cursing your past self for being cheap and not paying the fee to select your seat.

When Your Tiny Rental Car Might Not Make It

oneinchpunch/Shutterstock

The economy rental car option seemed like a fine idea when you were looking at it on the website and trying to cut costs, but when your budget vehicle turns out to be comically toy sized (especially next to those semi trucks whizzing past you on the highway), you might start to have some regrets about being cheap. See also: that heart-stopping moment when you wonder if your car is actually going to make it up a hill/down that dirt road, or if you're going to figure out how roadside service works in a foreign destination.

Dragging Your Suitcase on Public Transit

JPC-PROD/Shutterstock

Everyone on this packed train hates me, you'll realize as you try to squeeze your way on with your suitcase while accidentally whacking a few commuters with your backpack. Dragging your luggage up and down the stairs, through crowds, and off the train or bus, you'll rue being cheap and not just splurging on a taxi. Although, when you think of just how much more the fare is, it might just seem worth it.

Stressing Over Your Flight Connection

David Prado Perucha/Shutterstock

When you're on the first leg of a plane journey with a tight connection, every minute your plane doesn't board, or sits on the tarmac without taking off, feels like an eternity—the flight with the 50-minute layover was the cheapest option, but does that cost savings matter if you miss it?

Waiting in Line to Buy a Ticket Instead of Paying the Booking Fee

Tnymand/Shutterstock

This ticket site wants how much to book admission in advance? I'll just wait and buy it at the window, you think … until you arrive at the attraction and discover everything is sold out, or that the line is hours long. Is being cheap worth wasting your precious vacation time standing in line? If it's a Ticketmaster-esque ridiculous fee, it can be a tough decision.

When You Reach Hour 5 on the Slow Ferry or Train

Arman Zhenikeyev/Shutterstock

The slow ferry/bus/train won't be that much worse than the express, you think. Imagine all the scenery I'll see. That sounds like a great, cost-saving measure until you're trapped on an excruciatingly slow form of transport, experiencing fatigue and pain from sitting for so long, and thinking of everything you're missing by not arriving sooner.

More from SmarterTravel:

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Caroline Morse Teel knows all of these feelings that come from being cheap in an effort to expand her travel budget. Follow Caroline on Instagram @TravelWithCaroline to see her journeys around the world.



~A.

How to Fire an Attorney: 10 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHow

https://www.wikihow.com/Fire-an-Attorney


~A.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

The Secret Navy behind the Ballistic Missile Attack on Hawaii » Exopolitics

The Secret Navy behind the Ballistic Missile Attack on Hawaii » Exopolitics

The Secret Navy behind the Ballistic Missile Attack on Hawaii

As information continues to emerge confirming that there was a ballistic missile attack against Hawaii that was intercepted on January 13, the investigation begins to shift from what happened, to who was responsible. In this article, I analyze various sources describing the attack, and identify the mysterious naval force that was most likely responsible for launching the ballistic missile, which presumably was nuclear armed.

In my January 17 article, I listed three alternative news sites referring to sources that all said that a ballistic missile was launched against Hawaii by a stealth submarine. The alternative news sources were radio host Dr. Dave Janda, Operation Disclosure (RV/Intelligence Alert), and the Public Intelligence Blog. The Operation Disclosure and Public Intelligence blog sites point to an Israeli submarine as responsible, while Dr. Janda said it was a submarine belonging to a rogue Chinese Navy faction.

Further corroboration for the ballistic missile attack explanation comes from former Forbes Magazine writer, Benjamin Fulford, who says that according to his insider sources, there was a submarine based attack:

One sign of this extreme tension came last week when "a missile from a cabal submarine was stopped from hitting Hawaii and the submarine was sunk," Pentagon sources say.  Media outlets around the world have reported that Hawaiian residents all received the following warning on their mobile phones:  "BALLISTIC MISSILE THREAT INBOUND TO HAWAII, SEEK IMMEDIATE SHELTER, THIS IS NOT A DRILL," but later this was reported to be a false alarm.  It was not—it was an attempt by "the cabal" to blame the attack on North Korea and use it as a trigger for their long-desired World War III, CIA sources say.

Both Fulford and the Public Intelligence claim that the ballistic missile was intended to simulate a North Korean attack suggesting the responsible submarine was in the vicinity of North Korea, either in the Sea of Japan or off the Japanese coastline.

In determining the type of missile attack against Hawaii, yet another source refers to a Hawaii tourist boat about 100 miles out at sea that saw what appeared to be a meteorite exploding in the air shortly before the Hawaii Emergency alert went out Saturday morning, January 13. The additional source appeared as an update to the original Public Intelligence blogsite article about the Hawaii missile attack:

Word here in Hawaii is that a group of tourists and tour guides were on a boat 100 miles off shore Saturday morning around 8 AM when they witnessed what they thought to be a meteor blowing up over the ocean. It was reported on Hawaiian channel 2 but then removed from their website. Rumor is the launch came from an Israel Dolphin 2 submarine. Some college basketball games had a red alert across the screen from US Pacific Command declaring a missile launch in the Pacific near Hawaii.

This additional Hawaii source is vital in understanding what happened since it reveals that the missile was coming down from the upper atmosphere following a ballistic trajectory similar to a meteor. This helps confirm that a ballistic missile was involved rather than another type of nuclear delivery system such as a cruise missile which fly much closer to ground and have a far more limited range.

Of the sources cited so far, aside from Dr. Janda, all believe a faction of the Israeli Navy was behind the attack using a dolphin class submarine supplied by Germany. The USS Liberty attack during the 1967 Arab Israeli war is often cited as an example of Israel launching a false flag attack against the U.S. to embroil it in wars against Israel's regional enemies.

In a private email received on January 19, former CIA covert operative and Marine Intelligence Officer, Robert David Steele, says that the attack was a "Zionist submarine doing a USS Liberty on Hawaii".

In considering the possibility of a rogue Israeli submarine being responsible, it's important to review the armaments possessed by the class of submarines belonging to the Israeli Navy. In a news story describing Israel's possession of Dolphin class submarines purchased from Germany, its armaments are described as follows:

The Dolphin boats are equipped with six 533mm standard torpedo tubes and four 650mm jumbo tubes and can carry 16 weapons. The smaller tubes can fire torpedoes and Harpoon anti-ship missiles as well as other conventional weaponry, but its larger tubes are what makes the Dolphin class so special. From them, frogmen, remotely operated vehicles and especially large cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear payloads can be deployed.

Israel's Dolphin Class submarines can carry cruise missiles which are well suited for Middle East operations, rather than ballistic missiles which are better suited for long distance targets thousands of miles away. Ballistic missiles require much larger "boomer submarines" to launch them, rather than the smaller Dolphin class submarines possessed by Israel.

The Dolphin 2 submarine is 69 meters (225 feet) in length, which is less than half the size of the Ohio class boomer submarines (170 meters/560 feet long) used by the US Navy to carry Trident ballistic nuclear missiles. Sea Launched Ballistic Missiles need vertical missile tubes as opposed to the more traditional horizontal torpedo tubes used for Sea Launched Cruise Missiles located at the front of the smaller Dolphin class submarine.

Consequently, it's unlikely that a renegade faction of the Israeli Navy launched the ballistic missile attack since their Dolphin class submarines simply don't have the capacity.

Furthermore, it's hard to imagine how a U.S. war against North Korea and/or China would advance Israel's national security interests, which are far more concerned about threats posed by major regional rivals such as Iran.

Dr. Janda describes a rogue faction of the Chinese Navy being responsible, and that after the missile had been intercepted and destroyed by the US. Missile defense system, the regular Chinese Navy destroyed the submarine.

This explanation is perhaps the scariest to consider since the US national security apparatus would almost certainly hold China responsible for such an attack despite any genuine factional divisions within the Chinese Navy.

The immediate U.S. response would have been, at the very least, a direct retaliatory nuclear attack against China's main regional ally North Korea, which would have been scapegoated for a Hawaii attack. After destroying North Korea's military infrastructure, the country would have then been subsequently overrun and occupied by the U.S. Military and its South Korean ally in an analogous way to Afghanistan after the 9/11 attack. 

China's strategic interests would have been severely setback in such a scenario. It's hard to imagine any Chinese military commander, rogue Navy faction or not, would risk a nuclear retaliatory strike by the U.S. that would set back China's steady emergence into a global superpower over the next decade or so. Patience is a characteristic that China's political leaders possess in abundance.

Consequently, I find it unlikely that a rogue faction of the Chinese Navy was behind the ballistic missile attack.

So who then launched the attack against Hawaii?

For an answer we need to consider legendary Hawaii Senator Daniel Inouye who in 1987 described the existence of a shadowy government within the U.S. with its own separate military assets.

There exists a shadowy Government with its own Air Force, its own Navy, its own fundraising mechanism, and the ability to pursue its own ideas of the national interest, free from all checks and balances, and free from the law itself.

Inouye was clearly convinced of a very highly classified U.S. agency that had the independent funding and wherewithal to develop its own Air Force and Navy outside the regular chain of military command.

In contrast to the assets of the regular U.S. Air Force and Navy, this covert fleet of ships and aircraft would be "dark", in terms of its security classification. It would therefore be appropriate to call it the "Dark Fleet" which is what secret space program insider Corey Goode says it is called by the U.S. military according to his confidential sources [Skype Communication Jan 18). He says that it is separate to another "Dark Fleet" which is a Secret Space Program that operates in Deep Space.

I need to point out that in 2017, I personally met some of Goode's confidential Earth Alliance sources. They provided many documents to prove they are deeply connected to NATO security operations and the European intelligence community. They have continued to provide Goode intelligence information since they consider him to be a genuine extraterrestrial contactee, and asset of a Secret Space Program Alliance known to exist by NATO officials.

What U.S. Government agency would have the ability to raise its own "Dark Fleet" outside the regular chain of military command and Presidential executive authority? The only U.S. agency capable of doing so is the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). More specifically, we are talking about the CIA's Directorate of Operations (formally Clandestine Service) which runs all its global covert operations, where a Dark Fleet would have been developed to meet operational requirements.

The 1949 CIA Act comprised additions to those sections of the 1947 National Security Act that dealt with the creation of CIA. The 1949 CIA Act gave a Congressional stamp of approval to the creation of a 'black budget' it could spend without recourse to U.S. law as the following section make clear:

… any other Government agency is authorized to transfer to or receive from the Agency such sums without regard to any provisions of law limiting or prohibiting transfers between appropriations [emphasis added]. Sums transferred to the Agency in accordance with this paragraph may be expended for the purposes and under the authority of sections 403a to 403s of this title without regard to limitations of appropriations from which transferred. [50 U.S.C. 403f(a)]

Essentially, this gave the CIA the power to generate large amounts of money through covert means and launder it however it wished through the Pentagon and the U.S. bureaucracy. The funding was used for an unofficial "black budget" that by 2001 was estimated to be as high as $1.7 trillion annually.

In addition to having the financial means, the CIA has long been developing its own covert Air Force. This began in the mid-1950's when the CIA established Area 51, as the location to develop future fleets of spy planes with the aid of companies such as Lockheed, which today is the world's largest defense contractor.

In the 1960's the CIA began training personnel to develop skills necessary to operate its spy planes on U.S. aircraft carriers. CIA documents confirm that the U.S. Navy was training the CIA on how to operate spy planes on their carriers:

The above document went on to discuss how Kelly Johnson, Director of Lockheed's Skunkworks, helped the CIA launch its U-2 spy plane from the USS Kitty Hawk

Another CIA document shows the Navy's reluctance to allow the CIA to use its aircraft carriers to carry spy planes in trouble spots like the Mediterranean, thereby creating the operational necessity for the CIA to eventually acquire its own aircraft carrier to carry fleets of spy planes around the world.

These official CIA documents support the conclusion that by the 1970's the CIA's Directorate of Operations had its own squadrons of spy planes, and would have acquired its own aircraft carrier out of operational necessity that it could operate anywhere around the world without any kind of government oversight.

As far as the CIA having its own submarines, a Washington Times article from January 3, 1985 shows that two ballistic missile submarines, USS John Marshall and Sam Houston were handed over to a 2000 man Special Operations Force.

It can be guaranteed that the CIA's Directorate of Operations would have similarly justified the acquisition of ballistic missile capable submarines for its own covert operations around the world.

With the CIA's role in generating multiple black budgets, it could easily have diverted some of these funds to defense contractors for building ballistic missile capable submarines for exclusive use in clandestine operations. It's worth noting that Lockheed Martin builds the Trident II ballistic missiles for the Ohio class submarines currently possessed for by U.S. Navy.

As noted earlier, the CIA and Lockheed have developed a long and close relationship since their joint efforts to develop Area 51 for spy planes and other advanced technologies in the 1950's. Therefore it is very possible that the CIA's Dark Fleet possesses Trident II ballistic nuclear missiles developed by Lockheed Martin.

Consequently, Inouye's claims of a shadowy government possessing its own Air Force and Navy is very feasible given what we know about the CIA's history, and official documents showing its military assets, training and close relationship with defense contractors such as Lockheed Martin.

The CIA had the independent funding to create squadrons of spy planes that could operate from an aircraft carrier with the necessary support craft that altogether constituted a CIA controlled aircraft carrier battle group that included nuclear submarines.

So was the CIA's Dark Fleet behind the ballistic missile attack on Hawaii? I put this question to Corey Goode and he responded:

Yes, They DO have an Air Craft Carrier and destroyers and support vessels, a whole fleet….This stuff has been a part of recent briefings in the form of informed speculation as to what occurred in Hawaii/Japan. All are pretty convinced that rogue CIA sub fired missiles and MIC SSP [USAF/NRO/DIA Secret Space Program] took the missiles out. We are all waiting for specifics and confirmation but these are "read in" General/Colonel types doing the speculating.[Skype Communication 1/19/18)

The CIA's Directorate of Operations has long been the primary asset of what Inouye called the Shadow Government, but today is referred to as the "Deep State". Due to President Trump's December 21, 2017, Executive Order freezing the financial assets of all involved in human rights abuses and corruption,  Trump was not only declaring war against U.S. global elites involved, but also against the funding sources for the CIA's covert operations.

The CIA's black budget is made possible by human rights abuses and corruption around the planet that provides almost unlimited funds for its covert operations, including its Dark Fleet. Consequently, the CIA's Dark Fleet had the means, motive and opportunity to attack Hawaii with a ballistic nuclear missile that would embroil the Trump administration in a major regional war with North Korea and possibly China.

Significantly, on January 16, Japan's major public broadcaster also warned the public about an incoming ballistic missile attack. Once again, a false alarm was issued shortly after by government authorities.

It's quite possible that the same submarine responsible for the Hawaii attack, launched another missile attack, this time against Japan, presumably Tokyo. It was also brought down, probably by the same defense forces that tracked and destroyed the Hawaii bound missile. Again, the purpose would have been to simulate a North Korean attack thereby triggering a major regional war.

Such a war would distract the Trump administration and U.S. military from going after Deep State assets, and tie down the U.S. in a serious regional confrontation. Thankfully, the U.S. Navy and Air Force, along with the USAF run secret space program, were able to neutralize the attacks on Hawaii and Japan.

The multiple sources and documents cited above lead to a remarkable conclusion. A CIA created secret Navy launched ballistic missile attacks against Hawaii and Japan using a Dark Fleet created in the 1970's to support covert operations around the world.

Consequently, neutralizing the "Dark Fleet" and reigning in the CIA's Directorate of Operations must become a high priority goal for the Trump Administration and the Pentagon. A major step in doing so is for the truth to be officially released about ballistic missile attacks against Hawaii and Japan.

© Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Copyright Notice

[Note: My thanks to Corey Goode for reading an earlier draft of this article and his helpful suggestions.]

Further Reading

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Tags: ballistic missile, Dark Fleet, Hawaii, Japan, US Navy, USAF



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